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Molecular Basis of Plant Architecture

Thisreviewaimstoprovidebroadcover-ageofourlatestunderstandingoftheaerialarchitectureofhigherplantsanditspoten-tialapplicationstogeneticallymodi ed(GM)crops.

MOLECULAREVENTS

CONTROLLINGSHOOTAPICALMERISTEMACTIVITYShootApicalMeristem:TheUltimateSourceofPlantAerialOrgans

Theembryogenesisofhigherplantsestab-lishestheplantbodyplan,includingtheSAMandrootapicalmeristem(RAM),whichde-.

yterminethearchitectureoftheaerialandun-lnodergroundpartsofaplant,respectively.The esuSAMgeneratesallabove-groundcomponents lanofaplant,includingleaves,stems,andaxil-osrelarybranches,underthedynamicbalanceofp roindeterminategrowthanddifferentiation.Be-F .8causeofthesigni canceandcomplexityofthe/01SAMinplantdevelopment,themaintenance0/50anddifferentiationoftheSAMinpostembry- noonicdevelopmenthavedrawntheinterestof iL biologistsforcenturies.

gnaInArabidopsis,theSAMcontainsapoolofyaiJpluripotentstemcells,whichareorganized r.Dintothreecelllayers,L1toL3,accordingto ybtheorientationofcelldivisions,andarefur-theridenti edasthreezones(28):thecen-tralzone(CZ),peripheralzone(PZ),andribzone(RZ),respectively,accordingtotheirpo-sitionsandfunctions(Figure2a).TheL1andL2generatetheepidermisandsubepi-dermisofshoots,leaves,and owers,andtheL3generatestheinternaltissues(144).TheoverlappedregionofL3andtheCZactsasanorganizingcenter(OC)thatspeci estheoverlyingneighboringcellsasstemcells(Figure2a).ThemainactivitiesoftheSAMthroughoutplantdevelopmentaretomain-tainthepluripotentstemcellsandtoformlateralorgansandstems,bywhichthediversearchitectureofdifferentplantspeciesisestab-lished.

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Figure1

PlantarchitectureofmodelplantsArabidopsisandrice.(a–c)SchematicoftheplantarchitectureofArabidopsis.(a)Attheseedlingstage,novisibleaxillarybudcanbeobservedintheaxilofaleaf,asindicatedbythered

arrowintheupperpanel,whichisamagni cationoftheindicatedregioninthelowerpanel.(b)Transitionfromthevegetativestagetothereproductivestagepromoteselongationofthein orescencestem(bolting)andtheoutgrowthofaxillarybuds.Theredarrow(upperpanel)indicatesavisibleaxillarybudintheaxilofaleafandthearrowhead(lowerpanel)indicatestheelongatingin orescencestem.Theupperpanelisamagni cationoftheindicatedregioninthelowerpanel.(c)Thecontinuedoutgrowthoftheaxillarybudsgivesrisetobranches(redarrows).(d–f)Schematicoftheplantarchitectureofrice.(d)Attheseedlingstage,atillerbud(redarrow)canbeobservedintheaxilofaleafintheupperpanel,whichisaclosed-view

imageoftheindicatedregioninthelowerpanelaftertheleafisremovedtoexposethetillerbud.(e)Tillerbudsdevelopintotillers(redarrows).(f)Amaturericeplantwithpanicle-bearingtillers(redarrow).

CLV-WUSFeedbackLoop:AKeyFactorThatAffectstheDynamicMaintenanceofShootApicalMeristems

StudiesonArabidopsishaverevealedaCLV-GM:geneticallyWUS(foralistofgeneandenzyme

modi ed

http://www.wenkuxiazai.com PlantArchitecture255

Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 2008.59:253-279. Downloaded from http://www.wenkuxiazai.com

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